ASPHALT - Tar or similar bituminous
solid substance. A natural material, that can be mixed with rock for paving, or
applied as waterproofing, to various papers, felts, and sealant products.
BID - Written offering, of price for
work to be performed. Not necessarily a contract, can be more like an estimate,
with only basics laid out.
BITUMEN - Natural substances such as asphalt or Malta, which consist
mainly of hydrocarbons.
BITUMINOUS - Consisting of or resembling bitumen. Can be man made, such
as those made from petroleum by-products.
BOND - A paid for premium through an insurance company, that affords
consumers some protection against work performed. $5000 minimum in most areas.
To secure larger jobs, contractors will get larger bonds, over $1,000,000 not
BUNDLE - A package of roofing shingles, i.e.: a bundle of composition
shingles. Used as a unit of measure. 3 bundles to a square, 5 bundles to a
CONTRACT - The written form of an
agreement, enforceable by law, between two or more people for doing or not doing
CONTRACTOR - A person who contracts to provide products or services at a
set price or rate.
CAULKING - Adhesive used to fill in small areas against water, I.e.:
Around windows in a long bead so water won't leak in. Sold in tubes, and applied
by pressure. Normally by hand with a 'caulking gun'.
DECK - This is the surface on which the
roofing will be applied. Usually plywood (3/8" - 1") or 1"x4" or larger boards.
EAVE - this is the lower, overhanging
part of your roof. Typically down where the gutter is located is called the cave
EXPOSURE - Used to describe the amount of each row of roofing, not
covered by the above row. I.e.: If you look at a shake, tile or composition roof
you will see clearly defined rows. Each shake is 24" tall, how much do you
actually see? About 10" up and down. That is the amount of exposure. It matters
because each row laps over the one below, to give good coverage and to allow
it's nails to penetrate the row below.
FELT - Paper, matted together by
pressure and impregnated with asphalt to make waterproof.
FIFTEEN POUND - Felt commonly made in 36" tall rolls and sold by weight.
15 pounds per 100 square feet of coverage, with one roll covering 400 square
FIRE RATING - Measurement used by independent labs to determine
resistance to fire
FLASHING - Commonly any metal used on a roof to cover pipes, walls,
skylights, chimney, or valleys. Can be waterproof paper used around windows.
HEADLAP - The amount of lap given to a
material at the top of the application. Such as rolling out some felt and
overlapping onto the one below a number of inches.
HIP - The angled line formed at the juncture of two sloped sides, i.e.: A
pyramid would have four hips. Where each of two sides would meet.
HIP AND RIDGE - This describes the material used to cover the hip or
ridge areas. Known also as trim pieces.
INSURANCE - Commonly called public
liability insurance. A special policy that protects the overall public from
roofing disaster. Such as a building catching on fire, kettle full of hot tar
blowing up, passers-by getting hit with rock, etc. Protects the owner from
LAP - The amount of the preceding
material being covered.
LEAKS - A leak, of course, is the most obvious clue that your roof needs
some attention. Leaks can be caused by a variety of reasons, including shingle
blow-off or improperly installed or deteriorated flashing. Don't just look for a
drip coming from the ceiling, though. Signs of moisture also include discolored
spots on the wall, loose wallpaper, peeling paint on the ceiling or a damp smell
in a hallway or room. And remember that water traveling into your home may take
a circuitous route, running down rafters, top plates, studs and sole plates
before reaching your ceiling.
LIEN - The right by a worker or supplier to hold or sell your property if
not paid by the contractor for their work or products. You must obtain releases
that are originals and not copies, to assure all bills paid before final job
MASTIC - Asphalt based sealant.
Troweled, or applied by hand using rubber gloves. Other trades have other types
of mastic products.
MODIFIED-BITUMEN - Roofing material sold in rolls, usually applied by
heating with a propane torch.
NINETY POUND - Saturated felt matting
with asphalt based coating and embedded with color chips. By weight 90 lbs. per
100 square feet. 100 square feet per roll. This is a waterproof product by
OPEN BEAM CEILING - When timber
supports are visible inside and the ceiling is also the outside roofing deck.
Common to have 2x6, 2x4 tongue and groove boards as this dual use material.
Oriented Strand Board. An alternative to plywood, made from wood
chips oriented and glued in layers, to provide a strong deck surface. Sold in
4x8 foot sheets, in various thicknesses.
PATCH - Temporary fix for a water leak
PALLET - Tile and other materials when purchased in quantity, will come
on a rebuilt wooden structure. This is a pallet and the place where a forklift
would put the forks to lift the entire amount.
PENNY - Unit of measure in describing length of nails.
PLY - Refers to layers of roofing applied. Such as 4 ply, that would be
four complete layers of roofing one on top of the other.
PRORATED - In reference to warranties, this means the amount of rebate if
any, would be less the older the roof is.
RAFTERS - The supports that hold up the
roof and where the deck material would be nailed.
RAKE - The sloped ends of framed gable sides.
RIDGE - The horizontal line where the tops of roofing rafters meet. Also
used to represent the material used to cover this area.
SEVENTY TWO POUND - A roll material
used for the top layer of a hot tar roof. Weight of 72 lbs. per 100 square feet.
Not waterproof by itself.
SHEETING - The actual deck material, like 1x4's, or plywood.
SKIP SHEETING - Decking, using 1x4 boards with one installed, skip one,
install the nest etc. Allows wood roofing to have air circulation.
SPECS - Short for specifications. All the information about a material
and any requirements for installation.
SQUARES - A square is 100 square feet in roofing area. A roof of 1500
square feet would be 15 squares.
SUMMER/WINTER GRADE MASTIC -
Type of mastic that can be used in cold
weather is called Winter Grade. It is formulated to be thinner in consistency to
allow it to be worked when cold. Summer Grade the opposite, to be used when
weather is hot. Stiffer and will not run in summer temps.
THIRTY POUND - Roofing felt that weighs
30 lbs. per 100 square feet. 18 and 36" rolls, one and two squares respectively.
TONGUE AND GROOVE - Wood boards with a groove on one side and a ridge or
tongue on the other, to lock together for strength.
TURBINE - Air flow device used to ventilate attic areas. Mounted on the
roof and driven by the wind.
UNDERLAYMENT - Materials used to
complement others as a first of two or more layers.
UTILITY KNIFE - Handheld tool that can hold different types of razor
VALLEY - Depression angle created when
two sloped areas meet.
VALLEY METAL - Sheet metal used to cover valley areas of the roof.
WET/DRY-WET PATCH - Type of mastic that
can be used on wet or dry surfaces.
WHIRLYBIRD - See turbine
WORKMANS COMPENSATION INSURANCE -
Held by an employer in the case that a
worker is hurt on the job. This can cost more than $.50 on the dollar paid in
wages, for roofers.
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